Towards an equitable, carbon-neutral, nature-positive world

This is not an exhaustive list of documents and initiatives surrounding the post-2020 process. If you have a resource, article, or initiative you would like us to consider adding, please get in contact with us.



How Do We Enhance Area-Based Conservation?

The Nature Conservancy, in partnership with IUCN’s World Commission on Protected Areas and Equilibrium Research, has developed an initial paper on best practices, with funding from the United Kingdom’s Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), to facilitate the conversation.

Creating a Nature Positive Future: The Contribution of Protected Areas and Other Effective Area-Based Conservation Measures

Report of the UNDP, SCBD & UNEP-WCMC examining the current status of, benefits of, and opportunities for protected areas and OECMS.

The Economics of Biodiversity: The Dasgupta Review

Final report of the Independent Review on the Economics of Biodiversity led by Professor Sir Partha Dasgupta.

One World, One Health Recommendations to Harness the Power of Landscapes

Perspectives from the Global Landscapes Forum community with inputs from partner and youth organizations

Covid-19 Response and Recovery: Nature-Based Solutions for People, Planet and Prosperity

Recommendations for Policy Makers which highlight the critical connection between the health of nature and human health.

Global Biodiversity Outlook 5

Summarizes the latest data on the status and trends of biodiversity and draws conclusions relevant to the further implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

New Nature Economy Report II: The Future of Nature and Business

The practical insights needed to take leadership in shifting towards a nature-positive economy.

WWF Living Planet Report 2020

The World Wildlife Fund’s flagship publication released every two years, is a comprehensive study of trends in global biodiversity and the health of the planet.

World Economic Forum’s Global Risk Report 2020

The 15th edition of the World Economic Forum’s Global Risks Report.

Financing Nature: Closing the Global Biodiversity Financing Gap

The “Financing Nature” report offers the most comprehensive assessment to date on how much the world currently spends to benefit nature, how much more we need to be spending, and how we can close that nature funding gap now.

IUCN Global Standard for Nature Based Solutions

IUCN Global Standard provides clear parameters for defining Nature Based Solutions (NbS) and a common framework to help benchmark progress.

IPBES Global Assessment on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services 2019

A global assessment of status and trends of biodiversity and ecosystem services, the impact of biodiversity and ecosystem services on human well-being and the effectiveness of responses, including the Strategic Plan and its Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

Guidelines for conserving connectivity through ecological networks and corridors

The purpose of these Guidelines is to consolidate this wealth of knowledge and best-available practices to support efforts to combat fragmentation.

Ocean deoxygenation : everyone’s problem : causes, impacts, consequences and solutions

A 2019 IUCN report on the scale and nature of the changes being driven by ocean deoxygenation.

CBD in a Nutshell

An easy to understand guidebook by the Global Youth Biodiversity Network (GYBN) about the importance of biodiversity, the Convention on Biological Diversity and how the CBD process.

Scientific Reference

download (3)

A Nature-Positive World: The Global Goal for Nature

Locke, H., Rockström, J., Bakker, P., Bapna, M., Gough, M., Hilty, J., Lambertini, L., … & Zurita P. (2021).

Land use-induced spillover: a call to action to safeguard environmental, animal, and human health

Plowright, R. K., Reaser, J. K., Locke, H., Woodley, S. J., Patz, J. A., Becker, D. J., … & Tabor, G. M. (2021). The Lancet Planetary Health.

Protecting 30% of the planet for nature: costs, benefits and economic implications

Waldron, A., Adams, V., Allan, J., Arnell, A., Asner, G., Atkinson, S., … & Zhang, Y. (2020). Campaign for Nature.

Three Global Conditions for Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use: an implementation framework

Locke, H., Ellis, E. C., Venter, O., Schuster, R., Ma, K., Shen, X., … Watson, J. E. M. (2019). National Science Review6(6), 1080–1082.

An update on progress towards Aichi Biodiversity Target 11

Gannon, P., Dubois, G., Dudley, N., Ervin, J., Ferrier, S., Gidda, S.,… Shestakov, A. (2019). PARKS25(2), 7–18.

Strengthening the global system of protected areas post-2020: A perspective from the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas

MacKinnon, K., Smith, R., Dudley, N., Figgis, P., Hockings, M., Keenleyside, K., … & Wong, M. (2020).

A Review of Evidence for Area-based Conservation Targets for the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework

Woodley, S., Locke, H., Laffoley, D., Mackinnon, K., Sandwith, T., & Smart, J. (2019). PARKS, 25(2), 31–46.

Working landscapes need at least 20% native habitat

Garibaldi, L. A., Oddi, F. J., Miguez, F. E., Bartomeus, I., Orr, M. C., Jobbágy, E. G., … & Abramson, G. (2020). Conservation Letters, e12773.

Area‐based conservation beyond 2020: A global survey of conservation scientists

Woodley, S., Bhola, N., Maney, C., & Locke, H. (2019). PARKS, 25(2), 19–30.

A Global Deal For Nature: Guiding principles, milestones, and targets

Dinerstein, E., Vynne, C., Sala, E., Joshi, A. R., Fernando, S., Lovejoy, T. E., … Wikramanayake, E. (2019). Science Advances5(4). doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw2869

Integrating Climate, Biodiversity, and Sustainable Land Use Strategies: Innovations from China

Schmidt-Traub, G., Locke, H., Gao, J., Ouyang, Z., Adams, J., Li, L., … & Zhu, C. (2020). National Science Review.

For more academic articles on conservation, please see our archive of Academic Articles.

Area-Based Conservation and Biodiversity


Protected Area Governance andManagement

IUCN WCPA Handbook on Protected Area Governance and Management (Worboys, et al. 2015)
English, Spanish, French

30×30 (CBD Target 3)

IUCN WCPA. 2021. Conserving at least 30% of the planet by 2030: What should count?
FrançaisCastellano, 中国人

UNDP, SCBD & UNEP-WCMC (2021). Creating a Nature-Positive Future: The contribution of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures. UNDP: New York, NY.

Outcomes and Effectiveness

Stolton, S., Dudley, N. and Hockings, M. 2021. METT Handbook: A guide to using the Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT). Second edition guidance for using METT-4. WWF, Gland, Switzerland (Videos: Introduction and Using the new METT-4) Facebook group

Green List

IUCN WCPA Green List Standard


CBD. 2021. Proposed headline indicators of the monitoring framework for the post-2020 global biodiversity framework. CBD/WG2020/3/3/Add.1 11 July 2021

CBD. 2021. Proposed monitoring approach and headline, component and complementary indicators for the post-2020 global biodiversity framework. CBD/WG2020/3/INF/2 5 August 2021

UNEP WCMC 2022. Indicators for the post-2020 global biodiversity framework 

Protected Areas

Protected Planet World Database on Protected Areas UNEP WCMC

Protected Planet Protected Area Management Effectiveness (PAME) UNEP WCMC

IUCN Green List Standard  IUCN Green List website

Protected Planet IUCN Green List of Protected and Conserved Areas


This case study compilation was developed by the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (2022) to clarify what constitutes an “Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measure” (OECM).

OECMs Land and Sea Use Case Studies Compilation

Decision 14/8 of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Protected Areas and Other Effective Area-Based Conservation Measures

IUCN-WCPA Task Force on OECMs, (2019). Recognising and reporting other effective area-based conservation measures. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN

Site-level tool for identifying other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs). Version 2.0, May 2022 IUCN WCPA

​​Jonas, H., and MacKinnon, K. 2021. Recognising and reporting other effective area-based conservation measures. IUCN WCPA Technical Note Series No. 6, Gland, Switzerland: IUCN WCPA. 5pp.

PARKS Journal Special Issue on OECMs 2018

Training materials on OECMs (hosted by Bundesamt fúr Naturschutz)

Protected Planet World Database of OECMs UNEP WCMC

Privately Protected Areas

IUCN WCPA Best Practice Guidelines for Privately Protected Areas

The Futures of Privately Protected Areas

WCPA Specialist Group on Privately Protected Areas

Bingham, Heather, James A. Fitzsimons, Kent H. Redford, Brent A. Mitchell, Juan Bezaury-Creel and Tracey L. Cumming. 2017. Privately protected areas: Advances and challenges in guidance, policy and documentation. PARKS 23(1).

Training materials on Privately Protected Areas (hosted by Bundesamt fúr Naturschutz)

Indigenous Peoples (“Territories of Life”)

Protected Planet ICCA Registry UNEP WCMC

Borrini-Feyerabend, G., P. Bueno, T. Hay-Edie, B. Lang, A. Rastogi and T. Sandwith. 2014. A primer on governance for protected and conserved areas, Stream on Enhancing Diversity and Quality of Governance, 2014 IUCN World Parks Congress. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.

ICCA Consortium



G7 2030 Nature Compact

The G7 Leaders, commit to the global mission to halt and reverse biodiversity loss by 2030.

The Glasgow Climate Pact

Emphasized the importance of protecting, conserving and restoring nature and ecosystems to achieve the Paris Agreement temperature goal.

High Ambition Coalition for Nature and People

50 Countries Announce Bold Commitment to Protect at Least 30% of the World’s Land and Ocean by 2030.

Post-2020 Partnership Pavilion Outcome Document Summary

Presented to the High-Level Segment of CBD COP-15, emphasizing the need for an “equitable, nature-positive, carbon-neutral world.”

The UN Secretary-General State of the Planet Speech

A landmark speech setting the stage for dramatically scaled-up ambition on climate change over the coming year.

Post 2020 Pavilion Partnership: CALL TO ACTION for “An equitable, carbon-neutral, nature-positive world”

A Call to Action for Transformative Change for Nature and presented as a contribution to the UN Summit on Biodiversity, September 2020.

Leaders Pledge for Nature

Political leaders that participated in the UN Summit on Biodiversity in September 2020, have committed to reversing biodiversity loss by 2030.

NGO Joint Statement on post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework

A statement from group of NGOs outlining key milestones the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework must incorporate to reach the 2050 Convention on Biological Diversity Vision.

Nature Champions: Call to Action

A coalition of Nature Champions of international leaders from philanthropy, industry, NGOs, UN agencies, Indigenous peoples and governments came together at the Nature Champions Summit in Montréal, Canada in April, 2019.

The Nature-Based Solutions for Climate Manifesto

The Nature-Based Solutions Coalition co-led by China and New Zealand launched the NBS for Climate Manifesto ahead of the UN Climate Action Summit in September 2019.



High Ambition Coalition for Nature and People

An intergovernmental group of over 90 countries championing a global deal for nature and people with the central goal of protecting at least 30 percent of world’s land and ocean by 2030.

Campaign for Nature (30×30)

Calling on world leaders to commit to protecting at least 30% of the planet by 2030; help mobilize financial resources; and fully integrate and respect Indigenous leadership and Indigenous rights.

Global Youth Biodiversity Network

An international network of youth organizations and individuals from every global region who have united together to prevent the loss of biodiversity and preserving Earth’s natural resources.

A Global Apex Goal for Nature

A Goal which aims to achieve zero net loss of nature from 2020, be net positive by 2030, and see a full recovery by 2050.

Nature Needs Half

An international coalition of scientists, conservationists, non-profit’s, and public officials that has a global ground game in place that will protect 50% of the planet by 2030.

Half Earth Project

A call to protect half the land and sea in order to manage sufficient habitat to reverse the species extinction crisis and ensure the long-term health of our planet.

Nature for All

A global movement to inspire love of nature which believes that more people experience and share their love of nature, the more support and action there will be for its conservation

Natural Climate Solutions

A group that aims to have governments move towards an approach that helps address the issues of climate and ecological breakdown harmoniously.

The Nature Map

A geoportal that provides a set of integrated global maps on biodiversity and ecosystems services based on the best available scientific data and allows users to explore and provide feedback.

Institutional Links


Governance, Rights and Equity


Indigenous Peoples

IUCN Indigenous Peoples Organizations. 2021. Global Indigenous Agenda for the Governance of Indigenous Lands, Territories, Waters, Coastal Seas and Natural Resources. World Summit of Indigenous Peoples and Nature

Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2021. A Training Manual for Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities on the Convention on Biological Diversity. Español

Governance Frameworks

IUCN CEESP. Natural Resource Governance Framework. (multiple documents)

Borrini-Feyerabend, G., P. Bueno, T. Hay-Edie, B. Lang, A. Rastogi and T. Sandwith. 2014. A primer on governance for protected and conserved areas, Stream on Enhancing Diversity and Quality of Governance, 2014 IUCN World Parks Congress. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.


United Nations Human Rights Council. 2021. Resolution on the human right to a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable Environment. UN General Assembly


Bennett Nathan J., Katz Laure, Yadao-Evans Whitney, Ahmadia Gabby N., Atkinson Scott, Ban Natalie C., Dawson Neil M., de Vos Asha, Fitzpatrick Juno, Gill David, Imirizaldu Mael, Lewis Naia, Mangubhai Sangeeta, Meth Leah, Muhl Ella-Kari, Obura David, Spalding Ana K., Villagomez Angelo, Wagner Daniel, White Alan, Wilhelm Aulani. 2021. Advancing Social Equity in and Through Marine Conservation. Frontiers in Marine Science

Benefit Sharing

Stolton, S., Timmins, H. and Dudley, N. (2021). Making Money Local: Can Protected Areas Deliver Both Economic Benefits and Conservation Objectives?, Technical Series 97, Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal. 108 Pages.

Ecological Connectivity

Hilty, J.*, Worboys, G.L., Keeley, A.*, Woodley, S.*, Lausche, B., Locke, H., Carr, M., Pulsford I., Pittock, J., White, J.W., Theobald, D.M., Levine, J., Reuling, M., Watson, J.E.M., Ament, R., and Tabor, G.M.* (2020). Guidelines for conserving connectivity through ecological networks and corridors. Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No. 30. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. *Corresponding authors: Hilty (, Keeley (, Woodley (, Tabor (,

Areas of Importance for Biodiversity

IUCN (2016). A Global Standard for the Identification of Key Biodiversity Areas, Version 1.0 . First edition. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.

Sustainable Development Goals

Kettunen, M., Dudley, N., Gorricho, J., Hickey, V., Krueger, L., MacKinnon, K., Oglethorpe, J., Paxton, M., Robinson, J.G., and Sekhran, N. 2021. Building on Nature: Area-based conservation as a key tool for delivering SDGs. IEEP, IUCN WCPA, The Nature Conservancy, The World Bank, UNDP, Wildlife Conservation Society and WWF.



Re:Co Podcast
The Future in Sound : Nature Positive

EarthX Half-Earth Day Presentation:
Nature Needs Half (starting at 31:34)

Ontario Land Trust Alliance:
Land Trusts, Ecological Corridors and Nature Conservation That Matters 

National Marine Protected Areas Centre of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration:
Conservation Targets and How Much of the World do we Need to Protect?

Green Growth and Sustainable Development Conference:
The Important Role of National Parks in Green Growth and Sustainable Development: Lessons from Canada

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