IUCN WCPA TASK FORCEBeyond the Aichi Targets

The COVID-19 pandemic has delayed many meetings surrounding the post-2020 process under the Convention on Biological Diversity. We will endeavor to keep this page updated with the latest information about rescheduled meetings and events.

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Revised arrangements for the meetings of SBSTTA 24 and SBI 3

In light of the ongoing uncertainties caused by the pandemic, it is now clear that it will not be possible to convene any large physical intergovernmental meeting this year. The physical meetings of SBSTTA 24 and SBI 3 will be held in the first quarter of 2021 conditions allowing. The respective Chairs and the Bureaux, together with the Secretariat, will consider options for virtual discussions on the planned dates in November.

To facilitate preparations for SBSTTA 24 and SBI 3, a series of special virtual sessions of SBSTTA and SBI are being held on 15-18 September, 2020. These sessions will include the launch of the fifth edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook, and the testing of a Party-led review process through an open-ended forum. Further information regarding these sessions will be made available in due course.

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View the updated post-2020 timeline

3 Global Conditions – and a Map – for Saving Nature and Using It Wisely

By Erle C. Ellis, Harvey Locke, and James Watson

Nature urgently needs our help. Wild creatures, from songbirds to butterflies and from primates to tortoises, are disappearing so rapidly that they could be lost forever together with the wild forests, grasslands and other habitats that long sustained them. We humans already use nearly half of all Earth’s land to sustain ourselves, and the most productive parts at that. Meanwhile, the habitats remaining for the rest of life are shrinking to levels too low to sustain themselves….

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The EU Commission has released its Biodiversity Strategy for 2030

The new EU-wide Biodiversity Strategy will:

  • Establish protected areas for at least 30% of land and 30% of sea in Europe, with stricter protection of remaining EU primary and old-growth forests legally binding nature restoration targets in 2021.
  • Restore degraded ecosystems at land and sea across the whole of Europe by increasing organic farming and biodiversity-rich landscape features on agricultural land, halting and reversing the decline of pollinators, reducing the use and risk of pesticides by 50% by 2030, restoring at least 25 000 km of EU rivers to a free-flowing state and planting 3 billion trees by 2030.

Read more about the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030

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Planetary Problems

Biodiversity and Climate

Biodiversity Loss and Climate Change

We are facing two interrelated crises: the loss of global biodiversity and rapid, human-caused climate changes. Extinction rates are estimated to be 1000 times the background rate and in the future, these rates could be 10,000 times higher. The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) released a report showing that around 1 million species are facing extinction because of human actions. The climate crisis not only threatens humanity and but also the viability of many species and ecosystems and exacerbates pressures nature is already facing.

Biodiversity loss is being driven primarily by habitat loss and fragmentation, and over-harvest.  At the same time, the 2019 International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Climate and Land concluded human land use (including deforestation, destruction of carbon-sequestering ecosystems, and livestock) accounts for 23% of green-house gas emissions.

In the face of these global problems, the countries of the world have come together to act under two UN conventions: The United National Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), with the Paris Agreement, and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its Aichi Targets for 2010-2020.

Protected and conserved areas are the key solution to preventing biodiversity loss and can help us mitigate our carbon emissions. Under the CBD, countries have currently agreed through Aichi Target 11 to protect a minimum of 17% terrestrial and inland waters, and 10% marine and coastal areas by 2020 in protected and conserved areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, and to ensure they are effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative, well-connected systems of protected areas and integrated into the wider landscape and seascape. But despite this treaty pledge, biodiversity continues to decline.

The Aichi Target was an interim target, based on perceptions of political acceptability rather than a scientific assessment of what is required. So what does the science say about what do we need to do beyond 2020 for nature to not only survive, but thrive?  And how can big global conservation targets be implemented in a crowded world of 7.6 billion people?

The Case for Action at Scale

A Review of Evidence for Area-based Conservation Targets for the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework

By Stephen Woodley, Harvey Locke, Dan Laffoley, Kathy MacKinnon, Trevor Sandwith and Jane Smart
Published in PARKS the International Journal of Protected Areas and Conservation, Nov 2019

What is the scientific evidence for large scale percentage area conservation targets? This literature review examines current area-based conservation targets and proposals for higher targets. Here are some of its findings:

  • The minimum targets of 17% terrestrial and inland waters, and 10% marine and coastal targets from Aichi Target 11, are not considered adequate to conserve biodiversity by any research findings, either for ocean or for land.
  • The global protection of a minimum of 30% and up to 70%, or even higher, of the land and sea on earth is supported in the literature. Importantly, the suggested higher conservation targets are not discounted in any of the biodiversity literature. The call for 50% of the earth is a mid-point of these values and is supported by a range of studies.

A Global Survey of Conservation Scientists

By  Stephen Woodley, Nina Bhola, Calum Maney and Harvey Locke
Published in PARKS the International Journal of Protected Areas and Conservation, Nov 2019

In 2017-18, we surveyed 335 conservation scientists, from 81 countries to obtain their views on area-based conservation (as shown on the map). Here are some of its findings:

  • Nearly unanimously, area-based conservation is considered to be important to conserve biodiversity (99.3%).
  • There is very strong agreement that Target 11 is not adequate to conserve biodiversity (79.8% agreement).
  • Conservation scientists showed very strong support (76% strongly agreed or agreed) for large scale percentage area conservation targets, in the order of 50% of the earth.
Three Global Conditions for Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use: an implementation framework

To save what’s left of nature on this increasingly human planet, conservation needs to become a top priority around the world, from the wildest of wildlands to the densest of cities.

The national boundaries on the interactive and downloadable maps are for general reference and do not reflect a position on any territorial disagreements.

A Three Conditions framework for the Ocean

The Task Force, in partnership with IUCN WCPA Marine and other experts, is in the process of developing a Three Conditions framework for the oceans.  Please sign up for our newsletter to receive updates.

How the ocean is key to life on earth

How the ocean is key to life on earth

A healthy ocean is of tremendous value to humanity. The ocean provides food and supports livelihoods, offers shoreline protection from storms and floods, and also helps regulate the earth’s climate. The healthier it is, the better it will be able to perform those roles.

But the ocean is being disproportionately impacted by increased carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. Because of climate change, the ocean is changing in ways that harms biodiversity and also impacts humans. The ocean is becoming warmer, more acidic and is undergoing deoxygenation leading to changes in oceanic circulation and chemistry, rising sea levels, increased storm intensity, as well as changes in the diversity and abundance of marine species.

Created by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (UK Government) in partnership with the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).


This is not an exhaustive list of documents and initiatives surrounding the post-2020 process. If you have a resource, article, or initiative you would like us to consider adding, please get in contact with us.


*Adjusted March 31* New dates and venues have been released for upcoming CBD meetings
  • Twenty-fourth meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA 24): 17-22 August 2020, Ottawa, Canada
  • Third meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Implementation (SBI 3): 24-29 August, 2020, Ottawa, Canada

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Preparation of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework

Draft recommendation submitted by the Co-Chairs

CBD Preparations for the Post-2020 Biodiversity Framework

Updates on the implementation of the process for developing the post-2020 global biodiversity framework.

Submissions to the Post-2020 Process

Submissions to the CBD from parties, non-parties, and observers.

IUCN Post-2020 Resources

IUCN’s submissions to the post-2020 process, information papers, and other useful reads.


A Global Apex Goal for Nature


Campaign for Nature (30×30)


Nature Needs Half


Natural Climate Solutions


Half Earth Project


Nature for All



World Economic Forum’s Global Risk Report 2020

The 15th edition of the World Economic Forum’s Global Risks Report

IPBES Global Assessment on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services 2019

An global assessment of status and trends of biodiversity and ecosystem services, the impact of biodiversity and ecosystem services on human well-being and the effectiveness of responses, including the Strategic Plan and its Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

Ocean deoxygenation : everyone’s problem : causes, impacts, consequences and solutions
A 2019 IUCN report on the scale and nature of the changes being driven by ocean deoxygenation.
WWF Living Planet Report 2018

A comprehensive study of trends in global biodiversity and the health of the planet.

CBD in a Nutshell

An easy to understand guidebook by the Global Youth Biodiversity Network (GYBN) about the importance of biodiversity, the Convention on Biological Diversity and how the CBD process works.

Scientific Articles

Three Global Conditions for Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use: an implementation framework

Locke, H., Ellis, E. C., Venter, O., Schuster, R., Ma, K., Shen, X., … Watson, J. E. M. (2019). National Science Review, 6(6), 1080–1082.

An update on progress towards Aichi Biodiversity Target 11

Gannon, P., Dubois, G., Dudley, N., Ervin, J., Ferrier, S., Gidda, S., … Shestakov, A. (2019). PARKS, 25(2), 7–18.

A Review of Evidence for Area-based Conservation Targets for the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework

Woodley, S., Locke, H., Laffoley, D., Mackinnon, K., Sandwith, T., & Smart, J. (2019). PARKS, 25(2), 31–46.

Area‐based conservation beyond 2020: A global survey of conservation scientists

Woodley, S., Bhola, N., Maney, C., & Locke, H. (2019). PARKS, 25(2), 19–30.

A Global Deal For Nature: Guiding principles, milestones, and targets

Dinerstein, E., Vynne, C., Sala, E., Joshi, A. R., Fernando, S., Lovejoy, T. E., … Wikramanayake, E. (2019). Science Advances, 5(4). doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw2869

For more academic articles on conservation, please see our archive of Academic Articles.


NGO Joint Statement on post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework

A statement from group of NGOs outlining key milestones the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework must incorporate to reach the 2050 Convention on Biological Diversity Vision.

Nature Champions: Call to Action

A coalition of Nature Champions of international leaders from philanthropy, industry, NGOs, UN agencies, Indigenous peoples and governments came together at the Nature Champions Summit in Montréal, Canada in April, 2019.

The Nature-Based Solutions for Climate Manifesto

The Nature-Based Solutions Coalition co-led by China and New Zealand launched the NBS for Climate Manifesto ahead of the UN Climate Action Summit in September 2019.

Nature News
The latest news related to nature conservation from around the world.
The latest academic papers on conservation. Stay up to date with the science!


Appointed by the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas, the Beyond the Aichi Targets Task Force is building global momentum to scale up conservation of nature beyond the Aichi Targets for Biodiversity set at the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) in 2010. The Task Force’s goal is to ensure the new global conservation targets set at the next Conference of the Parties of the CBD in 2020 are meaningful for achieving the conservation of nature and halting of biodiversity loss. Informed by the best available science and a range of perspectives from around the world, the Task Force will ask and seek to answer what are truly sustainable conservation targets for all ecoregions, both marine and terrestrial, while considering the varying ecological and social conditions of the world.

The views expressed in this website do not necessarily reflect those of IUCN. The Beyond the Aichi Task Force is contributing to an IUCN position and informing a broader global dialogue through its work.

View the Beyond the Aichi Targets Task Force profile on the IUCN website.


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